Malcolm Glazer: A Significant Achiever
Malcolm Glazer: A Significant Achiever
When Malcolm Glazer of Rochester, New York state, USA, bought Manchester United in 2005, it made of the `red devils` at the `Theater Of Dreams`, Manchester`s Old Trafford stadium, `team United States` in England and Europe. Manchester United`s relations with the continent of America didn`t begin until after their European Cup win of 1968. The story is long and arduous. In the early years of the European Champions` Cup, the winner of the English league gained entry into the competition and, if they won, they`d be afforded the opportunity to play in the Intercontinental Cup against the Champions of South America, winners of the American continent`s equivalent of the European Cup, the Copa Libertadores, or `cup of freedom`, which the giant clubs of South America in Brazil and Argentina competed for against the other countries of the region before gearing up for the Intercontinental Cup Final contest with the Champions of Europe. The inaugural winners of the competition were Spain`s Real Madrid, 5-1, at their Estadio Santiago Bernabéu in Madrid against Uruguay`s Peñarol after a draw at the Uruguayans` Estadio Centenario, Montevideo, 0-0. An unsurprising result to the Europeans, because Real Madrid had won the inaugural European Champions` Cup competition in 1956 against France`s Stade De Reims, 4-3, and thereafter in 1957 versus Fiorentina of Italy, 2-0; 1958, versus A. C. Milan of Italy, 3-2; 1959 versus Stade De Reims, 2-0, and 1960 versus Germany`s Eintracht Frankfurt, 7-3. The heart of the team was comprised of foreign talent, for example, French playmaker Raymond Kopa, Uruguayan center back, José Santamaría, Argentine `keeper, Rogelio Domínguez, and striker, Ferenc Puskas of Hungary, whose national side had astonished the soccer world by beating England at home at Wembley for the first time ever, 3-5, in 1953. Although Manchester United perhaps could have beaten the Spanish giants in 1958, or afterwards, the Munich air disaster in which eight of the players, who had just qualified for the 1958 semi-final by drawing 3-3 in Belgrade against Red Star, died in the snow as the plane carrying the team back to Manchester crashed on the German runway during take off. Those who lost their lives would have been the heart of the England side that, along with United`s surviving left wing, Bobby Charlton, eventually won the World Cup at the national stadium, Wembley, London, in 1966, with goals from West Ham United forward, Geoff Hurst (3) and Hammers` left midfielder, Martin Peters, 4-2, against Germany.
England, managed by former Ipswich boss, Alf Ramsey and captained by West Ham United`s center half, Bobby Moore, went behind in the 12th minute when left full back, Ray Wilson, misheaded to right winger, Helmut Haller, who scored, 1-0, despite center half, Leeds United`s Jack Charlton, and Leicester `keeper Gordon Banks` efforts to keep the ball out. In the 19th minute, central midfielder, Wolfgang Overath, conceded a free kick, which Moore took. He floated a cross into the German area, where Geoff Hurst rose unchallenged and levelled the scores with a downward glancing header. After half-time, Germany conceded a corner in the 77th minute. Everton`s right sided midfielder, Alan Ball, found West Ham`s center forward, Geoff Hurst, whose deflected shot from the edge of the area rebounded to the Hammer`s left midfielder, Martin Peters, who beat `keeper, Hans Tikowski, from eight yards, 2-1. In the 89th minute Jack Charlton conceded a free kick for climbing on German captain and center forward, Uwe Seeler, as they both went up for a header. The kick was taken by left wing, Lothar Emmerich, and the ball struck right full back, George Cohen, in the England wall. The rebound fell to striker, Siegfried Held, whose shot across the face of goal struck left back, Karl-Heinz Schnellinger. The ball deflected across England`s six-yard box, wrong-footing the defense, and center back, Wolfgang Weber, leveled the score, 2–2. In the 11th minute of extra time Alan Ball crossed for Geoff Hurst to swivel and shoot from close range. The ball hit the underside of the cross bar, bounced down, and was cleared. Tofiq Bahramov, the linesman from Azerbaijan, indicated that the ball had crossed the line when asked by Swiss referee, Gottfried Dienst, 3-2. With a minute left, Germany sent their defenders forward in a desperate attempt to score. England`s center half and captain, Bobby Moore, picked out the unmarked Geoff Hurst with a long pass, which Hurst swept forward before unleashed a blistering unstoppable shot, 4-2.
Although England`s Manchester United contingent, half-back Nobby Stiles, and deep lying center forward, Bobby Charlton, celebrated, if it hadn`t been for the Munich air disaster, England might`ve won the World Cup earlier in 1958 or 1962. The players who died at Munich were England`s left back and captain, Roger Byrne, and his understudy, Geoff Bent; center half Mark Jones; midfielder Eddie Colman; the play anywhere genius, Duncan Edwards; center forward Tommy Taylor; left winger, David Pegg, and Irish forward, Liam Whelan. England`s right wing, Johnny Berry, and inside forward and sometimes center half, Danny Blanchflower, brother of Ireland`s Jackie, who`d win the English F.A. Cup and League Championship with Spurs in 1961, never played again because of their injuries. England`s story was similar to United`s, who went on to lose the semi-final of the European Cup in 1958 to Italy`s A.C. Milan, 0-4, at the San Siro stadium, after managing to win, 2-1, at their Old Trafford stadium in Manchester, with an 80th minute penalty from Ernie Taylor brought by manager, Matt Busby, from Aston Villa as a quick replacement for lost stars. Two years after England`s World Cup win, Manchester United won the European Cup against Portuguese club, Benfica, 4-1, after extra time when the game had ended 1-1. Bobby Charlton, now playing in a deep lying center forward role, as he had for England in the World Cup in 1966, had scored in the 53rd minute with a rare header, but that had been cancelled out by Benfica`s right half, Jamie Graça, in the 79th minute. A dribbler`s 92nd minute dream goal from Irish superstar, George Best, made it 2-1, and another from England`s 18 year old Brian Kidd in the 94th minute, whose header had been headed back to him by a Benfica defender, but he`d remained calm enough to head it again, and in over the Portuguese defense under the bar it went, 3-1, before a 99th minute lobbed volley from a narrow angle by Charlton secured the 1968 European Champions` Cup for an English team for the first time. In the Intercontinental Cup Final of 1968, which took place later that year, Manchester United lost to Estudiantes of Argentina, 0-1, away, and on aggregate overall, 2-1, after being only able to manage a draw at Old Trafford thanks to a late 90th minute goal from Scots` winger, Willie Morgan, bought that season to replace John Connelly, who`d arrived from Burnley himself. Morgan, who in 1974-75 would captain United out of the second tier of English soccer, whence they`d been relegated in 1973-74, had been seen at Turf Moor as a more than adequate replacement for England`s Connelly, where the team performed as well with Morgan, if not better, than it had with Connelly, who won the league title with Manchester United in 1966-67.
Because Manchester United had to win the English title to enter the European Cup competition, the format was seen as winning the European Cup after winning the league, whereas the later application form that had to be completed was of a qualifying position in the English league to gain entrance to the European Cup competition and, by winning it, qualify to compete in the Intercontinental Cup Final against the winners of the South American Copa Libertadores. Consequently, the application form shifted the format from winning the English league to winning the Intercontinental Cup, which was the true importance attached to the winning of the European Cup, that is, the chance to win the Intercontinental Cup. That had always been seen as the goal by the South American teams because their format was international competition, so the Intercontinental Cup was the zenith, whereas the English teams were conditioned to believe it was a formal friendly without any competition merit. In short, English clubs were encouraged not to compete on the world`s stage, because the clubs would become bigger than the country. Although Manchester United had completed the given format of winning the English league and then the European Cup, the Intercontinental Cup Final against the champions of South America, Estudiantes, by virtue of that continent`s competing in the Copa Libertadores, wasn`t perceived by the English as a part of the format needing to be completed. The Intercontinental Cup was perceived by the English press, and indeed advertised so, as a matter of form, that is, it wasn`t a part of a competition format whereby the winners of the English league had, as their ultimate objective, being crowned as intercontinental champions. It wasn`t until the format of qualification for the European Cup changed from being winners of the league to winners and runners-up that the Intercontinental Cup loomed larger as a part of the format of a much greater soccer vision.
Manchester United again won the European Cup in Spain at Barcelona`s Nou Camp stadium in 1999, with two very late goals from England`s Teddy Sheringham and Norway`s Ole Gunnar Solskjaer, 2-1, against Bayern Munich. The German team had led since the 6th minute through a low free kick from forward, Mario Basler, which was awarded after United center back, Ronny Johnsen, brought down Carsten Jancker. With his right foot Basler bent the ball around the United wall from just outside the penalty area, and into the net beyond Danish `keeper Peter Schmeichel. The Germans had led until United`s despair ended in a late attacking flourish of the never say die footballing style for which they are justifiably famed. United had a corner, and with little time left `keeper Schmeichel, who`d scored in similar circumstances, ventured up to Bayern's penalty area. Beckham flighted the corner in just over Schmeichel's head, and center forward, Dwight Yorke, 18 goals in the league that season, put the ball back towards the crowded area. Bayern substitute midfielder, Thorsten Fink, had been brought on by Bayern manager, Ottmar Hitzfeld, who`d receive much criticism for it, because Fink replaced sweeper Lothar Matthäus, 37 years of age, and Hitzfeld clearly felt he was a tired risk by the 80th minute, but Fink failed to clear a ball that probably wouldn`t ever have troubled Matthäus, and the ball arrived at the feet of Ryan Giggs, whose shot fortuitously found Sheringham, who latched onto it gleefully to swipe it into the bottom corner of the net with his right boot in the 91st minute. Neither Sheringham nor Solskjaer were chosen to start against Bayern, and as Sheringham was on for left winger, Jesper Blomqvist, in the 67th minute, Solskjaer, who`d scored 12 league goals that season, replaced center forward, Andy Cole (17), in the 81st minute almost immediately after Lothar Matthäus left the fray.
Sheringham had scored only twice in the league in 1998-99, but had redeemed himself by scoring with a low drive under Newcastle `keeper, Steve Harper, after a through ball from Scholes, in the F.A. Cup Final, which United won, 2-0, and so Sheringham had been picked to be amongst the substitutes. Within 30 seconds of the restart after Sheringham`s substitute`s strike, another Beckham corner found his head, and he nodded the ball down across the face of goal to where Solskjær, reacting quickly, stuck out his boot and poked the ball into the roof of the Bayern net in the 93rd minute. Matthäus` departure had ultimately sunk Bayern, and Hitzfelt was blamed, but United`s never say die attitude had won through for them again and the European Cup was theirs for only the second time in the club`s history since Benfica were beaten, 4-1, at London`s Wembley stadium in 1968. Despite winning the 1999 European Cup, the team had qualified for the competition without winning the league, and so the 1999 Intercontinental Cup Final against Palmeiras of Brazil, which United won, 1-0, on neutral ground at the National Stadium, Tokyo, with a goal from Irish midfield dynamo and captain, Roy Keane, who appeared at the far post to steer in a left wing cross from Welsh winger, Ryan Giggs in the 35th minute, loomed on the club`s horizon as a part of the format of the competition that had been taken on by the club in competing for the European Cup.
In the United States of America; for example, in Major League Soccer (MLS), where United`s pioneering Irish wing legend, George Best, saw out much of his playing career after leaving United in their relegation season, 1973-74, saying he wouldn`t play in any division other than England`s premier, growth is perceived as intrinsically linked to relocation. In 2006 the Earthquakes moved to Houston, Texas, to become the Houston Dynamo, because of greater financial opportunities. Although the USA is a single nation, and the Houston Dynamo still played in the Western Conference, despite being a state other than California, where the Earthquakes originally hailed from, relocating to Texas seemed necessary to growth. Best played for California`s San Jose Earthquakes in 1979-80, and was second highest goalscorer with 8 after Steve David`s 14. In 1980-1 George was the top scorer with 13 for the Earthquakes, who finished a creditable fourth in the Western Conference of the North American Soccer League in each of those successive seasons he played there. By 1982-83 the US` experiment with soccer had produced the Major Indoor Soccer League (MISL), but although George scored 32 goals overall during his MISL career with the Earthquakes, their highest place in the Western Conference was third during his sojourning there. Best was followed to the US by, amongst others, Manchester United and England captain, right winger, David Beckham who, like many United players of the past, had also agreed to relocate and help the growth of the MLS when, after winning the European Cup with Manchester United in 1999, he went on to win the Spanish title in 2006-07 with Real Madrid, and then the MLS Cup with California`s Western Conference team, the Los Angeles Galaxy, in consecutive seasons; 2011 and 2012. As a consequence, the North American and Europe Intercontinental Champions Cup was to become a significant prize in world football terms.
Manchester United won the European Cup again in 2008 at the Luzhniki stadium, Moscow, against English rivals, Chelsea, on penalties, 6-5, after extra time, when the final score had been 1-1 in normal time through a 26th minute headed goal from Manchester United`s Portuguese right winger, Cristiano Ronaldo, from a right wing cross from right full back Wes Brown`s left foot, which was equalized by a typical surging 45th minute midfield run and strike from Chelsea`s Frank Lampard. After their success in the European Cup the club were invited to take part in the World Club Championship. In the 28th minute of the semi-final victory against Japanese side, Gamba Osaka, United`s Serbian central defender, Nemanja Vidić, from a Ryan Giggs’ corner, out-jumped Gamba captain, Satoshi Yamaguchi, to power home a header past `keeper, Yosuke Fujigaya, from 12 yards, 1-0. Portuguese right winger, Cristiano Ronaldo, put United 2-0 up in first-half injury time. Again the ball came from a Giggs` corner, and again the Japanese struggled to cope with the aerial threat. Myojin was out-jumped as Ronaldo directed a powerful header past `keeper, Fujigay. United manager, Sir Alex Ferguson, didn`t bring on his star striker, England`s Wayne Rooney, until the 74th minute, but Gamba Osaka immediately pulled the score back to 2-1, courtesy of striker, Masato Yamakazi, with a shot from the right well outside the penalty area. A minute later, however, Rooney finished well, after a long ball from Scots` central midfielder, Darren Fletcher, split open the Japanese defence, 3-1. Fletcher then headed in French left back Patrice Evra`s cross, 4-1. In the 78th minute, and after linking up well with left-winger, Giggs, Rooney made it 5-1 a minute later. United conceded a penalty, 2-5, when United`s England right back, Gary Neville, was adjudged to have handled a cross from the left wing, and in the 85th minute Yasuhito Endō calmly scored from the spot, 2-5. Hideo Hashimoto scored in second half injury time in a way almost identical to Yamakazi`s first half effort, 1-2. From the right and well outside the penalty area, Hashimoto struck the ball past Dutch `keeper, Edwin Van Der Sar, 3-5, but United were through to the World Club Cup Final against LDU Quito of Ecuador.
In the Final in the International Stadium Yokohama, Japan, a single goal against the winners of the Copa Libertadores, South America`s Champions of Ecuador, LDU Quito, scored by England`s center forward, Wayne Rooney, won the game for Manchester United, 1-0. Remaining where he was at the left corner of the LDU Quito area, Wayne played the ball back to left sided Brazilian midfielder, Anderson. He then waited while Anderson played the ball into the path of England right central midfielder, Michael Carrick, in front of the LDU Quito area. Carrick pushed the ball forward to Manchester United right winger, Cristiano Ronaldo, inside the LDU Quito area with two players in attendance. With his back to the goal, Cristiano Ronaldo turned to his right and slipped the ball to Wayne, who was still waiting at the left edge of the LDU Quito area where he`d begun the play. Rooney drove a shot low and right footed into the right corner of the LDU Quito net. Rooney had been lurking on the edge of the Ecuadorians` area after Serbian center back, Nemanja Vidić, had been sent off in the 49th, so causing the Manchester United front players to look for maximum impact, rather than mobility, which those behind them needed to employ to cover for their absent defensive colleague. Rooney`s 73rd minute goal had given the tiring defense a cushion useful enough to frustrate the South Americans and give the English team the World Club Championship.
Although the club qualified for the European Cup in 2008 as winners of the English league title and were champions again in 2007-08 after which the World Club Championship was played between Manchester United as European Cup winners against Chelsea, 6-5 on penalties after a 1-1 draw, the format had at last been recognized. It wasn`t that the aim was to win the English league in order to win the European Cup, it was to win the World Club Cup by qualifying for the Final by winning the European Cup. Although United qualified for the European Cup by winning the English league, and then winning the European Cup to give them a chance of winning the World Club Cup, it wasn`t necessary to win the English league to qualify for the European Cup, because the aim was to succeed in the new format in which the winners of the European Cup qualified for the World Club Cup Finals, which were the goal of the biggest clubs that had been unrecognized as South America`s, where the approach to soccer as an international league differs profoundly from England`s parachial approach to club football. The United States provides a model of how England`s Football Association could mature, whereas it restricts clubs from becoming financially more successful in global terms; for example, by devaluing the Intercontinental Cup, clubs are kept from moving away from Europe in order to be more successful. Ignoring prejudice against spreading their wings to become a greater world force, and although Malcolm Glazer sadly passed away in May, 2014, Manchester United won the 2014 North America and Europe International Champions` Cup in the Sun Life Stadium, Miami, although Liverpool were 1-0 after an early 14th minute penalty from Liverpool`s captain, Steven Gerard, which was awarded for a trip on Raheem Sterling by United defender, Phil Jones. After an equalizing goal from England`s center forward, Wayne Rooney, meeting Mexican striker Javier Hernandez’s arrowing cross in the 55th minute with a neat left-foot volley, two minutes later came a goal from Spain`s inside right, Juan Mata, whose shot was deflected off Mamadou Sakho in the 57th minute, 2-1. A third followed in the 88th minute from England left winger, Jessie Lingard, who`d come on as a substitute after the second United goal. Controlling a cross from England`s Ashley Young, who`d begun on the left, but had moved over to the right wing after injury to Antonio Valenica. Lingard half-volleyed low from the edge of the box beyond Liverpool `keeper, Mignolet. Although United celebrated with the trophy, it was a further instance of an international competition that didn`t receive national recognition at home in England, but Manchester United had transcended parochialism at home to be European Champions (1968, 1999, 2008); champions of South America and Europe (1999), champions of North America and Europe (2014), and World Club champions (2008): a significant achievement.